What is Orthopaedics?
Orthopaedic surgery or orthopaedics is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the skeleton system and its interconnecting parts, also known as the musculoskeletal system. This system includes bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles and nerves.
Musculoskeletal conditions can be present from birth or occur as a result of injury or age-related wear and tear. Musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, arthritis, tumours and congenital disorders are some of the conditions that require an orthopedist’s attention. To treat these conditions, orthopedists use surgical and non-surgical procedures such as diagnosis and physical rehabilitation.
Joint Pains in Adults
One of the most commonly occurring musculoskeletal conditions is Arthralgia, i.e. joint pain. About one-third of adults in the world have reported joint pain. These pains can range from mild to severe and can last between a couple of days (acute) to months (chronic). Joint pains are often caused due to strains, sprains, injuries, reduced mobility, inflammation in the body, diabetes, arthritis, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, etc.
- Hips - Osteoarthritis occurs in people 50 years of age and older and is among the most commonly occurring hip pain. It happens when the cartilage cushioning the bones of the hip wears away and the bones rub against each other causing pain and stiffness.
- Knees - Knee pain is a common complaint that can affect people of any age. It can be short-term due to overuse or strain or chronic in nature due to ruptured ligaments, arthritis, gout, etc.
- Shoulders - Shoulder pains primarily occur due to trauma or overuse. Since the shoulder has more mobility than any other joint in the body, it is more prone to injuries.
- Spine and Back - Spinal pain or back pain is the world's leading cause of disability. In some cases, it gets better with pain relievers and anti-inflammatories. However, there are times when the discomfort should not be ignored and needs medical attention.
Bone and Joint Problems in Children
Bone disorders can occur as part of the child's growth or without any specific reason. It can be caused by injury, infection, cancer or even be inherited. Some bone disorders or infections can cause pain and difficulty walking whereas others cause no symptoms. These conditions are worrisome and require treatment at the earliest or damage to the bone or joints could result in arthritis, joint stiffness, deformities, etc.